Sleep disorders | Processing the Environment | MCAT | Khan Academy

Sleep disorders | Processing the Environment | MCAT | Khan Academy


Voiceover: I’m sure we’ve
all had trouble sleeping at one point or another, maybe trouble falling asleep,
staying asleep or waking up or maybe you’re forcing
yourself to sleep less because you have too
much to do to lie in bed. But sleep deprivation
can be a serious issue. People who don’t get enough
sleep are more irritable and perform worse on
memory and detention tasks than people who do. So all this can be just a minor
annoyance in everyday life, imagine the long-term
implications for let’s say, airline pilots, firefighters,
security officers or the person driving next
to you on the freeway. For example, one study
in Canada showed that the Monday after the Spring time change, so when people lose an hour of sleep, the number of traffic
accidents increases sharply compared to the Monday
after the Fall time change when people get an extra hour of sleep, the number of accidents decreases sharply. So that’s just one example,
but sleep deprivation also makes people more susceptible to obesity. When you’re sleep deprived you’re
body produces more cortisol which is a hormone that tells
your body to make more fat. You also produce more of the
hormone that tells your body you’re hungry, so you end up
eating more and turning more of what you eat into fat which
can contribute to weight gain. And finally sleep deprivation
can also increase your risk for depression and one theory
about this link is that REM sleep helps your brain
process emotional experiences, which in turn helps
protect against depression though we’re still not
entirely sure about this link. Most people, now most people
experience sleep deprivation at some points in their lives, but the good news is
that most people can get back on track by getting a
few nights of good sleep, sort of paying back your sleep debt. Your next question might be then, “How much sleep is enough sleep?” That’s kind of a hard question to answer, but most adults need
about 7-8 hours of sleep, but the exact number varies
by individual and by age. Babies need a lot more sleep,
for example, than older adults often sleep less than 10 or 8
hours without severe detriments. Again everyone has trouble
falling asleep at some point, but people who have persistent
problems in falling or staying asleep have a more serous
sleep disorder called insomnia. There are various medications
that can help people fall asleep, but taking
them for too long can result in dependence and tolerance,
which is if a person continues to rely on the
medication then their body will get used to it and they’ll
eventually need more and more to get the same affects. Now, that can often be a
bad thing because there are side effects to drugs, but
so treatment for insomnia often involves psychological
training as well as or sometimes instead of medication and some lifestyle changes
might also be necessary. For example, exercise regularly
but not right before bed or spend some time just
relaxing before bed and these can people with insomnia. On the other end of the
spectrum is narcolepsy, which is a disorder when people can’t help themselves from falling asleep. So about 1 in 2,000 people
suffers from narcolepsy and most of the time people
with narcolepsy will have these spontaneous fits
of intense sleepiness occasionally lapsing into REM sleep and these fits last about five minutes and can occur really any time. Although the cause of narcolepsy
is still under investigation, there are indications that it’s genetic and it’s linked to the absence
of a certain neurotransmitter that helps with alertness suggesting that neurochemical interventions
may help some people overcome this problem. A more common sleep
disorder is sleep apnea, which affects about 1 in 20 people. This one is a little scary
because people who have apnea are really unlikely to be aware of it. What happens is that people
stop breathing while they sleep. After about a minute of not breathing, your body realizes you’re
not getting enough oxygen and you wake up just long
enough to gasp for air and then fall back asleep
without really being aware of what happened and
this can actually happen as many as hundreds of times each night, which is a lot and because
you’re constantly drifting kind of between sleep and wakefulness, you don’t really get enough
of your deeper stages of sleep so this prevents you from
going into the N3 stage or the slow-wave sleep. Snoring can be an
indication of sleep apnea, so if you’ve ever been told that you snore and you often feel fatigued
in the morning even after what you think is a full
night sleep then you might be one of the 1 in 20
people with sleep apnea, but it’s very treatable so don’t worry. Sleep walking and sleep talking
are the last sleep disorders we’re going to talk about. Like narcolepsy, these
are mostly genetic and they occur during N3 stage
sleep and are usually harmless as long as you don’t walk
into a dangerous situation or reveal any deep dark secrets. Sleep walking and talking occur
more frequently in children, partially because children
experience more N3 stage sleep than adults, but as you grow
these nighttime adventures become much less frequent.

12 thoughts to “Sleep disorders | Processing the Environment | MCAT | Khan Academy”

  1. The most important thing in getting rid of insomnia, from my experience, is turning off your computer at 7pm. You can use smaller screens such as your phone, although I wouldn't advise it. Whenever I don't use technology with bright screens in the hours before I want to sleep, I find it fairly easy to fall asleep.

  2. here's several things for ways to treat insomnia
    Try to lessen the noise around you
    Keep as relaxed as you can
    Keep with the same sleep patterns each day
    (I read these and the reasons they work on Trevs sleep blueprint website )

  3. There are several ideas for relieving insomnia quickly
    Try chamomile tea
    Drink a honey drink or eat honey
    Find out the cause of your insomnia
    (I learned these and the reasons they work on Hartlyn Sleep System website )

  4. There are several tips for relieving sleeplessness naturally
    Try chamomile tea
    Stay as calm as possible
    Stick to the same sleep patterns daily
    (I read these and the reasons they work from Hartlyn sleep system site )

  5. Some brief descriptions there, would like to see more in one video about the causes of such disorders… I know that in another video it goes into depth about sleep apnea, however I have yet to see one on Sleep walking/ talking and narcolepsy… I am aware that you have given brief ideas on causes however there are a lot more causes than just biological and would like to see the applications to other more subjective perspectives. Thanks and your doing well!!

  6. do you have any videos on the consequences of rapidly waking up during N1, N2, N3 and REM???? I'm doing a project on firefighters sleep deprivation. Thank you!

  7. I discovered this sleep program “Bαkοkαt Fawam” (Google it) truly effective. I`ve suffered from insomnia all of my like, seriously, since infancy, have utilized different medicines, but this plan is the most effective tool I`ve encountered for smashing the cycle of sleeping disorders. I used this guideline religiously and been able to reach my goal of having a better sleep.

  8. Here is everything you need to know about sleeping disorders –> https://www.consumerhealthdigest.com/health-conditions/sleep-disorder.html

  9. I was advised by my physician that I was possessing this particular illness referred to as sleep apnea. By the assistance of sleep apnea treatment method “amam fetching site” (Google it) I was able to comprehend how it started and how to end the sickness. I am doing the workout routines (albiet inconsistently) and viewing outcomes. .

  10. "The most successful procedure for the treatment of refractory chronic and episodic CH is the SPG block"

    I am very pleased to be speaking on this topic at the Moscow ICCMO Meeting.

    I have a paper on the Role of the
    Sphenopalatine Ganglion and the use of SPG Blocks and Neuromodulation in Neuromuscular Dentistry Scheduled for publication in the May 2019 issue of Cranio, The Journal of CranioMandibular and Sleep Practice.

    New article on Cluster Headache, The title is quoted from the article.

    Sphenopalatine Ganglion Blocks have been used since 1908.

    Amazingly safe and effective for wide range of disorders. Self-Administration makes SPG Blocks even more effective.

    https://www.reddit.com/r/SPGBlocks/

    .
    Abstract from PubMed:

    Neurol Sci. 2019 Mar 16. doi: 10.1007/s10072-019-03796-5. [Epub ahead of print]

    Cluster headache: crosspoint between otologists and neurologists-treatment of the sphenopalatine ganglion and systematic review.

    Rosso C1, Felisati G2,3, Bulfamante A1, Pipolo C4.

    Author information

    Abstract

    Among cephalgias, cluster headache (CH) is the rarest and the most disabling, explaining the appellation of "suicide headache." Up to 20% of chronic CH reveals to be resistant to pharmacological treatments, in which case interventional procedures should be considered. Many reports evaluated invasive approaches and a wide strand of research is dedicated to the sphenopalatine ganglion. Our paper will now be focused on providing an overview on modern applications on the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG), their outcomes, and their feasibility in terms of risks and benefits. The group reviewed the international literature systematically for procedures targeting the sphenopalatine ganglion and its branches for episodic and chronic CH, including block, stimulation, radiofrequency, stereotactic radiosurgery, and vidian neurectomy. Seventeen articles fixed our inclusion criteria.******************* Comparing the outcomes that have been analyzed, it is possible to notice how the most successful procedure for the treatment of refractory chronic and episodic CH is the SPG block, which reaches respectively 76.5% and 87% of efficacy. *******************************Radiofrequency has a wide range of outcomes, from 33 to 70.3% in CCH. Stimulation of SPG only achieved up to 55% of outcomes in significant reduction in attack frequency in CCH and 71% in ECH. Radiosurgery and vidian neurectomy on SPG have also been analyzed. Generally, ECH patients show better response to standard medical therapies; nevertheless, even this more manageable condition may sometimes benefit from interventional therapies mostly reserved for CCH. First results seem promising and considering the low frequency of side effects or complications, we should think of expanding the indications of the procedures also to those conditions. Outcomes certainly suggest that further studies are necessary in order to understand which method is the most effective and with less side effects. Placebo-controlled studies would be pivotal, and tight collaboration between neurologists and otorhinolaryngologists should also be central in order to give correct indications, which allow us to expect procedures on the SPG to be an effective and mostly safe method to control either refractory ECH or CCH.

    KEYWORDS:

    Cephalgia; Cluster headache; Endoscopic transnasal approach; Refractory headache; Sphenopalatine ganglion

    Neurol Sci. 2019 Mar 16. doi: 10.1007/s10072-019-03796-5. [Epub ahead of print]

    Cluster headache: crosspoint between otologists and neurologists-treatment of the sphenopalatine ganglion and systematic review.

    Rosso C1, Felisati G2,3, Bulfamante A1, Pipolo C4.

    Author information

    Abstract

    Among cephalgias, cluster headache (CH) is the rarest and the most disabling, explaining the appellation of "suicide headache." Up to 20% of chronic CH reveals to be resistant to pharmacological treatments, in which case interventional procedures should be considered. Many reports evaluated invasive approaches and a wide strand of research is dedicated to the sphenopalatine ganglion. Our paper will now be focused on providing an overview on modern applications on the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG), their outcomes, and their feasibility in terms of risks and benefits. The group reviewed the international literature systematically for procedures targeting the sphenopalatine ganglion and its branches for episodic and chronic CH, including block, stimulation, radiofrequency, stereotactic radiosurgery, and vidian neurectomy. Seventeen articles fixed our inclusion criteria. Comparing the outcomes that have been analyzed, it is possible to notice how the most successful procedure for the treatment of refractory chronic and episodic CH is the SPG block, which reaches respectively 76.5% and 87% of efficacy. Radiofrequency has a wide range of outcomes, from 33 to 70.3% in CCH. Stimulation of SPG only achieved up to 55% of outcomes in significant reduction in attack frequency in CCH and 71% in ECH. Radiosurgery and vidian neurectomy on SPG have also been analyzed. Generally, ECH patients show better response to standard medical therapies; nevertheless, even this more manageable condition may sometimes benefit from interventional therapies mostly reserved for CCH. First results seem promising and considering the low frequency of side effects or complications, we should think of expanding the indications of the procedures also to those conditions. Outcomes certainly suggest that further studies are necessary in order to understand which method is the most effective and with less side effects. Placebo-controlled studies would be pivotal, and tight collaboration between neurologists and otorhinolaryngologists should also be central in order to give correct indications, which allow us to expect procedures on the SPG to be an effective and mostly safe method to control either refractory ECH or CCH.

    KEYWORDS:

    Cephalgia; Cluster headache; Endoscopic transnasal approach; Refractory headache; Sphenopalatine ganglion

    Ira L Shapira DDS, D,ABDSM, D,AAPM, FICCMO
    Past Chair, Alliance of TMD Organizations

    Diplomat, Academy of Integrative Pain Management

    Diplomate, American Board of Dental Sleep Medicine
    Diplomate, American Board Sleep and Breathing
    Regent, Master & Fellow, International College of CranioMandibular Orthopedics

    Board Eligible, American Academy of CranioFacial Pain

    Dental Section Editor, Sleep & Health Journal
    Member Cranio Editorial Board, Journal of Craniomandibular and Sleep Practice
    Member, American Equilibration Society

    Member, Academy of Applied Myofunctional Sciences
    Member, Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry
    Life Member, American Dental Association
    www.ThinkBetterLife.com
    www.DelanyDentalCare.com
    www.NorthShoreSleepDentist.com
    www.IHateCPAP.com
    www.iHateHeadaches.org
    www.SleepandHealth.com
    www.SphenopalatineGanglionBlocks.com
    https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCk9Bfz6pklC7_UluWFHzLrg

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