(Ding) (electric guitar music) – One of the coolest

things I’ve discovered about circuits is, circuitry

can be an art form. If I have a creative idea, I can get that creative

idea out using circuits. So, if you have ideas, you

can use technology to make those ideas come to life. Every input or output of

a computer is effectively a type of information,

which can be represented by on or off electrical signals. Or one’s and zero’s. In order to process the

information that comes in, as input, and the make the

information that’s output. A computer needs to modify

and combine the input signals. To do this, a computer uses

millions of tiny electronic components, which come

together to form circuits. (upbeat music) – Let’s take a closer look

at how circuits can modify and process information that’s represented in one’s and zero’s. This is an incredibly simple circuit. It takes an electrical signal,

on or off, and it flips it. So, if the signal you give it is a one, the circuit gives it a zero. And if you give the circuit

a zero, it gives you a one. The signal that goes in, is

not the same as the signal that comes out. And so, we call the circuit, not. – More complicated circuits

can take multiple signals and combine them, and give

you a different result. In this example, a circuit will

take two electrical signals. Now, each one might be a one or a zero. If either of the signals

coming in is a zero, then the result is also a zero. This circuit will only give you a one if the first signal and the

second signal are both a one. And so, we call this circuit, and. There are many small circuits like this, that perform simple, logical calculations. But connecting these circuits together, we can make more complex circuits that perform more complex calculations. For example, you can make a

circuit that adds two bits together called, an adder. This circuit takes in two

individual bits, each one, a one or a zero, and adds them

together to calculate the sum. The sum can be zero plus zero equals zero, zero plus one equals one,

or one plus one equals two. You need two wires coming out

because it can take up to two binary digits to represent the sum. Once you have a single

adder for adding two bits of information, you can put

together multiples of these adder circuits side by side to add

together much larger numbers. – For example, here’s how an eight bit adder adds the numbers 25 and 50. Each number is represented

using eight bits resulting in 16 different

electrical signals that go into the circuit. The circuit for an eight bit

adder has lots of little adders inside of it, which

together, calculate the sum. Different electrical circuits

can perform other simple calculations like subtraction

or multiplication. In fact, all the information

processing your computer does it’s just lots and lots of small simple operations put together. Each individual operation

done by a computer is so, so simple, it

could be done by a human. But these circuits inside

computers are way, way faster. – Back in the day, these

circuits were big and clunky. An an eight bit adder

could be as big as a fridge and it would take minutes for them to perform a simple calculation. Today, computer circuits

are microscopic in size and way, way faster. Why are smaller computers also faster? – Well, because the

smaller the circuit is, the less distance the

electrical signal has to go. Electricity moves at just

about the speed of light which is why modern circuits can perform billions of calculations per second. – So, whether you’re playing

a game, recording a video, or exploring the cosmos,

everything you can possibly do with technology requires lots of information to be processed extremely quickly. Underneath all this complexity, is just lots of teeny little

circuits that turn binary signals into websites and

videos, music and games. These circuits can even help us decode DNA to diagnose and cure disease. (upbeat music)