Blockchain 101 – A Visual Demo

Blockchain 101 – A Visual Demo


this is a blockchain demo we’re gonna do this in a very visual way though we’re gonna make it very easy to understand by stepping through the key pieces of what a blockchain is in a visual way but before we get started we need to take a look at this thing that we call a sha 256 hash ok and a hash this is this is one of them right here hash looks like a bunch of random numbers and essentially what it is it’s a fingerprint of some digital data and it just so happens it’s a fingerprint of whatever i type in this box so if I type my name “anders” into this box you see that the hash has changed matter of fact it changed every time I typed a letter right so I’m going to go back to so it says anders okay so this is a the hash of the name anders all lower case it starts with 19ea right ok so if i delete that and I go again type anders again you can see it starts with 19ea the same exact hash in that sense it’s a digital fingerprint of this data whatever data is here every time you type exactly the same data you get exactly the same hash and i can type anything i want so I can you can have nothing like this you know e3b0 that’s that’s the hash of nothing or you could type tons and tons of stuff a matter of fact you could put like the library of congress in here and you would get a hash and the interesting thing about it is regardless of their if there’s a tiny amount of information no information or the entire library of congress you’re always going to get a hash that is this long this many characters are you not going to be able to pre guess what this is you kind of have to put the library of congress in here to figure out what the hash is but you you’ll always get exactly the same hash regardless of how many times you put exactly the same information in so what I’m going to do is extend this idea of a hash into something that we’re going to call a block alright so let’s take a look at a block so this is a block and it’s exactly like the hash it’s just that data section I’ve broken out now into three sections one called block this is just some kind of a number this block number 1 a nonce which is just yet another number will go into what that is in a second and then just some more data just very similarly to the way that we had it before however the hash of this which includes all of this information up here is down here and it begins with four zeros you see that it’s a relatively unusual hash you know most of them are not really going to start with four zeros like that but this one happens to and because it does totally arbitrarily i’m going to say that this block is signed ok so what would happen if i were to change any one piece of this information let’s say if i were to type something here right the hash is going to change and what’s the chance of that if i type letters this hash is going to start with four zeros pretty low it’s probably not right so let’s see what happens when i do that i’m just going to say hi look at that right this hash does not start with four zeros and so the big background here has turned red so now you know that this this block with this information in it is not a valid or a signed block ok and that’s where this nonce comes in this nonce is just a number that you can set to try to find a number that fits so that this hash starts with four zeros again alright so how do we do that well let’s start with one that start with now it’s 32 so that’s not one let’s try two FF now 3 4 5 6 so you get the idea like i could sit here all there’s one that starts with 0 I can sit here all day typing these numbers and trying to figure out one that actually is going to hash out to something that starts with four zeros that wold take a long time so here i have my little mine button i’m sure you’ve been wondering what happens if i press that so what’s going to happen when i press this mine button is it’s gonna run through all the numbers from 1 all the way up to try to find one where the hash starts with four zeros and this process is called mining let’s do it right now now it’s checking all of the numbers from 1 all the way up with their now it’s stopped at 59,396 and that one just happens to hash out to something that starts with four zeros and it satisfies my little definition of what assigned block is ok so that’s that’s a block now can you tell me what a blockchain is it’s probably just a chain of these blocks well how do you how do you put them together let’s let’s do that alright so here’s my blockchain I’ve blocked number one has some kind of a nonce just like before there’s some data area too but then it has this previous here is a bunch of zeros let’s let’s roll forward so this is block two and block 3 and 4 this block chain has five blocks on it right the previous here starts with 0000ae8 right is this number ae8 and then this previous you know b90 is this one over here b90 so you can see that each block points backwards to the one before it you remember that that first block over here there actually is no previous so it’s just a bunch of zeros it’s actually just a fake number ok so just like we did before what happens if I change some information here right it’s going to change the hash of this block and it’s going to invalidate it right now let’s try that so i’m going to type pie again sure enough that block is invalid alright just as we assume but what would happen i’m going to fix that now we’ll go back to something that work what would happen if I changed something in this block right it’s going to change this hash but this hash gets copied up to this previous so it’s going to it’s going to change this one to right so it should break both blocks so let me try typing hi in there and sure enough all right so we can go back as far as we want you know to some point in the past and break that block and it will break all the blocks since then everything before still green but this one is is red it’s so if i wanted to you know change something in this this block chain I could just go over to block number five right here we could change it I’ll put hi and then we could remine it you know and pick a different nonce will do that right now and we could essentially alter the chain so we’ve done it so that we should be good down right all right well what happens if i go back in time to hear and I break it here now i have to mine this block which will pick a nonce that makes this block hash out to four zeros if we can find one sometimes it takes a while because it’s gotta run through a lot of there it is it found one at a hundred and thirty-eight thousand alright but this one is still broken because although this one starts with four zeros adding the four zeros with different stuff up here still makes this block hash out incorrectly so i also have to mine this block alright and that takes some amount of time that one was a little bit quicker and then i have to mine this block to fix it alright so what we’re showing here is that if i go and change this last block all i have to do is remine this block if I go way back in time to back here and I make a change like that i’m going to have to mind this one this one this one and this one so the more blocks that go by the more blocks in the past that we are the harder and harder and harder it is to make a change and so that it’s how a blockchain is going to resist mutation resist change ok so now you like like you know identify if if i do this in this block here you can see that I’ve changed it to hi and I remine it blah blah blah how would i know that my block chain has been remined all right let’s take a look at that I’m gonna hit this little distributed thing so now we have a just distributed blockchain it looks exactly like the last blockchain ok up to five that but this is peer a the first peer if you go down here you can see here is peer b and it happens to have an exact copy of the blockchain there’s actually also a peer c down here right this could go on forever there’s many many peers out on the internet and they all have a complete copy of the blockchain so in this case if i look at this hash it’s 0000e4b all right if I go down to this one I notice it also has e4b if I go down to this last one it has e4b so they must be identical and i’m going to demonstrate that by going here and typing something i’ll type hi again and then i will remine this block I’ve got some other number now let’s put some other number up here so i should be able to mine this block okay now all the chains are green right they’re all green however this chain says the last hash is e4b the bottom one says that too e4b and this middle one here says 4cae so I know just by glancing at this one little hash that something is wrong in this blockchain even though all of the hashes start with four zeros I know that this one is different and it’s different because i have two it’s essentially two against one we are a little democracy here right this guy argues that it’s e4b this guy argues that it’s 4ca and this one is e4b so e4b wins so that’s how a completely distributed copy having a copy on many different computers they can all very quickly see if all of the blocks are identical remember blockchains can have you know 4 500,000 blocks very easily so rather than checking through all of them all you really have to do is look at the hash of the most recent one and you can see that if anything in the past anything way back here was altered you can tell by looking at this at the last block in this in the chain you know it’s going to hash out to something that doesn’t start with four zeros and looks very different from what the hashes on the good chains are ok so that’s a blocking that’s the entire thing there is no more to it than that but it’s kind of not really useful because we don’t have some something in this data area that means anything i keep typing my name or hi and that’s kind of that sort of irrelevant information so what we really want is a token so let’s do a token on our blockchain all right now look at this so i have this token just totally arbitrarily I’m calling these I guess dollars right so we have twenty-five dollars from Darcy to Bingley four dollars and twenty-seven cents go from Elizabeth to Jane you get the idea it’s basically there’s all these transactions that are happening and I’ve just replaced the data with these transactions and just like we saw before you know so there’s multiple blocks here this one has more transact… it doesn’t matter how many transactions there are there can be many or there can be few or none if we keep going forward here just like we saw before if we go down and we notice we have all these other copies of the same block chain right so now here’s where the immutability is important if i change something back here you’ll notice that this is you know a7fc blah blah blah something it’s something else so it’s something different than what’s down here so in in this way I mean it’s very important that if i were to go back in time and change some value that we would notice it’s it’s very important with money that you don’t lose track and that’s the whole point of using a blockchain here this is a whole point of resisting any kind of modifications you know of things that have happened in the past so that’s the that’s the reasoning behind having using a blockchain to remember tokens now I one thing I would mention here is that we’re not listing you know Darcy has a hundred dollars and he’s giving 25 of it to Bingley the only thing we’re saying is Darcy gives 25 to Bingley. We’re not remembering a bank account balance we’re only remembering money movements. So this begs the question “does Darcy have $25?” Well we have a problem here in this version of the blockchain: we don’t actually know if Darcy has $25. So let’s look at a coinbase transaction. So if we look back here a coin base we’re going to add a coinbase transaction to our blocks and this is this is very similar to what we’ve seen before but we’re just adding a coinbase at the top and what’s that that what that’s saying is we’re going to invent a hundred dollars out of thin air and give it to Anders and there’s no transactions in this block because nobody had any money previous to this. In the next block another hundred dollars comes out of nowhere and goes to Anders i’m a fan I love it right I’ll take a hundred bucks now we have some transactions you can see that they’re all from Anders, they’re all from me because I’m the only one who has any money at this point. So I’m sending 10 of my dollars to Sophie. Do I have ten dollars? Yeah, I do, I look back and I see that this coinbase transaction has given me a hundred so I have at least 10 and I can send it on and you add all these up and they don’t go over a hundred and it follows sort of a basic rule of a currency that you can’t invent it out of thin air you can’t create money out of thin air you this its dispersion is controlled so now if we look at this block chain that we’ve created and we zip forward in time and we notice that we see that Jackson is giving Alexa two dollars and so does Jackson actually have two dollars to give Alexa well we go back a block before we see that Emily had gotten ten dollars from Anders gave 10 to Jackson and so Jackson does have the money so we can just go backwards and and find that out that’s actually one of the benefits of having a previous here it’s easy to go backwards we we just look for the block that looks like that that has that hash and here it is right here right so you points two blocks back in time and allows us to trace the provenance of any coin that we want so that’s a basic block chain and we’re running a currency on top of it and as you know blockchains are there many copies everybody has a copy of it so if we mutate you know this and make it six dollars these go invalid it does not agree with with these block chains down here these copies of the same block chain down here so this resist tampering which is what you want for a currency it works very well for things that are small and transactional like this go ahead and fix that and they’re just a very efficient way to handle agreement on what has happened in the past as kind of this immutable history that that goes down with time so that’s a basic block chain and a token on it there were glossing over some main points but if you dig into the demo and and click through these things and play around with it you get a better and better idea of how this works there will be a part 2 where we go into a little bit more detail about how the transactions are created till then

100 thoughts to “Blockchain 101 – A Visual Demo”

  1. Hello Anders, one question… On the last section of this video, when you demonstrate the blockchain with the signatures, at that moment, the transfer already happened and the block is only recording the transaction into the ledger ,or the transaction is occurring during this block miner?

  2. Hello sir , thanks for creating such a wonderful video on blockchain ..
    Can u please help me i wanted to know where can i do the more practicals on blockchain and what should i do to dive into more deep .
    Hope for early reply

  3. Thanks for BEST EVER EXPLANATION !!! Question: how did Anders get his first 100 ? (talking about the 1st ever transaction)

  4. please don't use the word "signed" for a correctly mined block.
    Signed is when you use a private key to create a digital signature for transactions.
    Terminology is important, use it right.

  5. Loved the video! If anyone is interested in learning more about Blockchain subscribe to my channel 😊! Posting weekly videos and always open to posting anything you want to hear.

  6. Excellent video. Simple enough that you don't need to know anything about blockchain to follow but technical enough that you can understand the fundamentals behind how a blockchain actually operates.

  7. I have finished watching this video completely.
    (我看完這部影片了)

    I am a Taiwanese who cares about the global affairs.
    (我是一個關心全球事務的台灣人)

    And, sadly, most of my fellow Taiwanese don't really care about the world.
    (但是,很不幸地,我大部分的台灣同胞不那麼在意世界。)

    Hopefully Taiwan can become increasingly globally-aware and globally-competitive.
    (希望台灣可以越來越有全球意識與全球競爭力。)

    God bless Taiwan.
    (天佑台灣。)

  8. Hey Anders, Quick question :
    Given 6 billion people, its possible that 2 people may have the same private key (lets say 1) , will the chain collapse or get corrupted ? What prevents that ?

  9. Also did a little bit of digging : here is what similar to yours

    “The Bitcoin protocol does not enforce anything from the wallet, asides requiring specific ECDSA curve to be used for key generation. If you happen to generate a keypair colliding with another keypair, congratulations, it's a very rare occurrence ! Same if your public key will hash into the same Bitcoin address (in theory you could have two different keypairs that have the same address associated with them).

    The consequence for such an occurrence is that both of the owners of the keys can spend the money associated with the corresponding address, not an ideal situation. If you are lucky, you might be able to steal someone's Bitcoins (but shame on you if you do), but most likely you'll just come across some address that was used only once, as the standard client has a tendency of generating new keypairs for every transaction in order to protect your anonymity.”

  10. If you don`t know anything about blockchain, watch this video. After 17 mins, you will be the mentor for others 🙂

  11. Thank Anders for making this videos, very clear explantion. I have a couple questions:
    1. At 15:48 I'm just curious why in Block 5, Coinbase $100 is named to Sophia, why not Anders?
    2. In the example above, 1 block may have 3 or 4 transactions, is that possible that 1 block may have different number of transactions, instead of fixed number of transactions?

  12. A miner is a peer, but a peer may not be a miner. What does a peer (not miner) get (benefit) when join a blockchain, please?

  13. what is the utility of having blocks be signed? if all hashes did not begin with four zeros, that would not break the ability to check for differences, we would still just check if the last hash of each peer is equal. So what functionality does requiring blocks be signed provide?

  14. I have a doubt… 1) Lets say distributed network has 3 peers.. I go to peer A and lend him $1. Will it be reflected in peer B and peer C end ? But in the video 10:40 it is not the case . Why ?

  15. Lots of news articles saying this can be a tool to evade censorship in china. Because how do you hide information? Everything you see on the computer screen are data (more explicitly, bits; zeroes and ones internally), which can be assigned to a hash, and to censor it requires tampering it, which will alter the hash and destroys the later blocks in the chain, the government can no longer view information of all the later blocks, and re-mining it does fix the chain, but does not reattaches the blocks being disconnected. Essentially you broke a real chain, reattach to the one you just created. Looks like if the government wants TRUE censorship that is unstoppable, that is only possible by removing the internet entirely, force all citizens and foreigners not to use computers that allow circumventions, and/or use the intranet.

  16. This is indeed great video. In last example Ryan did not get money still paying to others. How to validate it?

  17. Hey Anders, great work! But I have a question. Suppose we have three peers such as in your example. Let say Peer A and Peer B make same changes on the latest Block (Let say the write a completly egual addittional message in the data field) and they mine it afterwards to get a valid blockchain. So at the end we have three valid blockchains, but we know that the chains of A and B are the same but C is different. We also know, that C is the right one, but it looks like that C is manipulated, because it doesnt match with A and B. Would this scenario represent a perfect manipulation approach? When not, how can the system know that C is the right one and not A and B?

  18. Thank You so much… This is the video i was searching for in the entire youtube. But you helped me with this.. I cannot thank you enough for this help .. Have a nice day.. Country – Nepal 😀

  19. 15:25 – Anders: "It follows a basic rule of a currency. Like you can't invent it out of thin air."

    2017 – Literally every ICO: "Hold my beer."

  20. Best explanation of blockchain that I have ever seen.  THANK YOU Anders ! Please keep posting such videos.

  21. Best demo I've seen. In the future, public-private key pair will replace social security numbers, passwords, account codes, driver's license #, passpost #, etc….

  22. hello i am trying to run the code in cygwin and i am getting this error….**SyntaxError: Invalid or unexpected token
    at Module._compile (internal/modules/cjs/loader.js:723:23)
    at Object.Module._extensions..js (internal/modules/cjs/loader.js:789:10)
    at Module.load (internal/modules/cjs/loader.js:653:32)
    at tryModuleLoad (internal/modules/cjs/loader.js:593:12)
    at Function.Module._load (internal/modules/cjs/loader.js:585:3)
    at Module.require (internal/modules/cjs/loader.js:692:17)
    at require (internal/modules/cjs/helpers.js:25:18)
    at Object.<anonymous> (C:cygwin64homeTommy Robertblockchain-demoapp.js:9:14)
    at Module._compile (internal/modules/cjs/loader.js:778:30)
    at Object.Module._extensions..js (internal/modules/cjs/loader.js:789:10)**…..would you know how to solve this?..i am on a win dows 7 machine..should i try to run it on VMware ubuntu machine?,,thxz for your great vid…Jesiica

  23. npm ERR! Linux 4.4.0-31-generic
    npm ERR! argv "/usr/bin/nodejs" "/usr/bin/npm" "install"
    npm ERR! node v4.2.6
    npm ERR! npm v3.5.2
    npm ERR! file sh
    npm ERR! code ELIFECYCLE
    npm ERR! errno ENOENT
    npm ERR! syscall spawn

    npm ERR! [email protected] preinstall: `node ./cyclic.js`
    npm ERR! spawn ENOENT
    npm ERR!
    npm ERR! Failed at the [email protected] preinstall script 'node ./cyclic.js'.
    npm ERR! Make sure you have the latest version of node.js and npm installed.
    npm ERR! If you do, this is most likely a problem with the typechecker package,
    npm ERR! not with npm itself.
    npm ERR! Tell the author that this fails on your system:
    npm ERR! node ./cyclic.js
    npm ERR! You can get information on how to open an issue for this project with:
    npm ERR! npm bugs typechecker
    npm ERR! Or if that isn't available, you can get their info via:
    npm ERR! npm owner ls typechecker
    npm ERR! There is likely additional logging output above.

    npm ERR! Please include the following file with any support request:
    npm ERR! /home/r1/blockchain-demo/npm-debug.log
    [email protected]:~/blockchain-demo$ npm bugs typechecker
    [email protected]:~/blockchain-demo$ cd ..
    [email protected]:~$ ls
    blockchain-demo Downloads install-cc.1 Public Videos
    Desktop examples.desktop Music s9s_tmp
    Documents install-cc Pictures Templates
    [email protected]:~$ cd blockchain-demo
    [email protected]:~/blockchain-demo$ ls
    app.js Dockerfile node_modules public views
    bin LICENSE package.json README.md
    docker-compose.yml locales package-lock.json routes
    [email protected]:~/blockchain-demo$ npm start

    > [email protected] start /home/r1/blockchain-demo
    > node ./bin/www

    sh: 1: node: not found

    npm ERR! Linux 4.4.0-31-generic
    npm ERR! argv "/usr/bin/nodejs" "/usr/bin/npm" "start"
    npm ERR! node v4.2.6
    npm ERR! npm v3.5.2
    npm ERR! file sh
    npm ERR! code ELIFECYCLE
    npm ERR! errno ENOENT
    npm ERR! syscall spawn
    npm ERR! [email protected] start: `node ./bin/www`
    npm ERR! spawn ENOENT
    npm ERR!
    npm ERR! Failed at the [email protected] start script 'node ./bin/www'.
    npm ERR! Make sure you have the latest version of node.js and npm installed.
    npm ERR! If you do, this is most likely a problem with the blockchain-demo package,
    npm ERR! not with npm itself.
    npm ERR! Tell the author that this fails on your system:
    npm ERR! node ./bin/www
    npm ERR! You can get information on how to open an issue for this project with:
    npm ERR! npm bugs blockchain-demo
    npm ERR! Or if that isn't available, you can get their info via:
    npm ERR! npm owner ls blockchain-demo
    npm ERR! There is likely additional logging output above.

    npm ERR! Please include the following file with any support request:
    npm ERR! /home/r1/blockchain-demo/npm-debug.log
    [email protected]:~/blockchain-demo$ ./bin/www
    /usr/bin/env: ‘node’: No such file or directory
    [email protected]:~/blockchain-demo$ node ./bin/www
    The program 'node' is currently not installed. You can install it by typing:
    sudo apt install nodejs-legacy
    r[email protected]:~/blockchain-demo$ sudo apt install nodejs-legacy
    [sudo] password for r1:
    Reading package lists… Done
    Building dependency tree
    Reading state information… Done
    The following NEW packages will be installed:
    nodejs-legacy
    0 upgraded, 1 newly installed, 0 to remove and 81 not upgraded.
    Need to get 27.9 kB of archives.
    After this operation, 82.9 kB of additional disk space will be used.
    Get:1 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-updates/universe amd64 nodejs-legacy all 4.2.6~dfsg-1ubuntu4.2 [27.9 kB]
    Fetched 27.9 kB in 0s (70.5 kB/s)
    Selecting previously unselected package nodejs-legacy.
    (Reading database … 195804 files and directories currently installed.)
    Preparing to unpack …/nodejs-legacy_4.2.6~dfsg-1ubuntu4.2_all.deb …
    Unpacking nodejs-legacy (4.2.6~dfsg-1ubuntu4.2) …
    Processing triggers for man-db (2.7.5-1) …
    Setting up nodejs-legacy (4.2.6~dfsg-1ubuntu4.2) …
    [email protected]:~/blockchain-demo$ node ./bin/www
    module.js:328
    throw err;
    ^

    Error: Cannot find module 'express'
    at Function.Module._resolveFilename (module.js:326:15)
    at Function.Module._load (module.js:277:25)
    at Module.require (module.js:354:17)
    at require (internal/module.js:12:17)
    at Object.<anonymous> (/home/r1/blockchain-demo/app.js:1:77)
    at Module._compile (module.js:410:26)
    at Object.Module._extensions..js (module.js:417:10)
    at Module.load (module.js:344:32)
    at Function.Module._load (module.js:301:12)
    at Module.require (module.js:354:17)
    [email protected]:~/blockchain-demo$ npm start

    > [email protected] start /home/r1/blockchain-demo
    > node ./bin/www

    module.js:328
    throw err;
    ^

    Error: Cannot find module 'express'
    at Function.Module._resolveFilename (module.js:326:15)
    at Function.Module._load (module.js:277:25)
    at Module.require (module.js:354:17)
    at require (internal/module.js:12:17)
    at Object.<anonymous> (/home/r1/blockchain-demo/app.js:1:77)
    at Module._compile (module.js:410:26)
    at Object.Module._extensions..js (module.js:417:10)
    at Module.load (module.js:344:32)
    at Function.Module._load (module.js:301:12)
    at Module.require (module.js:354:17)

    npm ERR! Linux 4.4.0-31-generic
    npm ERR! argv "/usr/bin/nodejs" "/usr/bin/npm" "start"
    npm ERR! node v4.2.6
    npm ERR! npm v3.5.2
    npm ERR! code ELIFECYCLE
    npm ERR! [email protected] start: `node ./bin/www`
    npm ERR! Exit status 1
    npm ERR!
    npm ERR! Failed at the [email protected] start script 'node ./bin/www'.
    npm ERR! Make sure you have the latest version of node.js and npm installed.
    npm ERR! If you do, this is most likely a problem with the blockchain-demo package,
    npm ERR! not with npm itself.
    npm ERR! Tell the author that this fails on your system:
    npm ERR! node ./bin/www
    npm ERR! You can get information on how to open an issue for this project with:
    npm ERR! npm bugs blockchain-demo
    npm ERR! Or if that isn't available, you can get their info via:
    npm ERR! npm owner ls blockchain-demo
    npm ERR! There is likely additional logging output above.

    npm ERR! Please include the following file with any support request:
    npm ERR! /home/r1/blockchain-demo/npm-debug.log
    [email protected]:~/blockchain-demo$ npm bugs blockchain-demo
    npm ERR! Linux 4.4.0-31-generic
    npm ERR! argv "/usr/bin/nodejs" "/usr/bin/npm" "bugs" "blockchain-demo"
    npm ERR! node v4.2.6
    npm ERR! npm v3.5.2
    npm ERR! code E404

    npm ERR! 404 Not found : blockchain-demo
    npm ERR! 404
    npm ERR! 404 'blockchain-demo' is not in the npm registry.
    npm ERR! 404 You should bug the author to publish it (or use the name yourself!)
    npm ERR! 404
    npm ERR! 404 Note that you can also install from a
    npm ERR! 404 tarball, folder, http url, or git url.

    npm ERR! Please include the following file with any support request:
    npm ERR! /home/r1/blockchain-demo/npm-debug.log
    [email protected]:~/blockchain-demo$
    *hello i tried running your source code with the steps from github page but i get the erors above* Jessica

  24. hello sorry im also trying to just use your program online in a browser but i cant get it to wrok..ot says save file and i save it andnothing happens or if i try to open with i try a browser but it still saves the file ..thx if anyone can help..jessica

  25. Even if I'm not a native speaker this is the best explanation I have ever received. Your ability to explain complicated things in such a simple way is amazing! I wish I had professors like you at school! Just a couple of litte questions, Anders. In the Coinbase section you list as a separate field the transaction Coinbase to Anders. First question: Do you mean Coinbase as the famous Coinbase company and so you are assuming that Anders receives money from a Coinbase transaction is his favour? What is the sense of repeating the same $100 coinbase -> Anders in all next blocks ? Why on the last block there is a $100 Coinbase ->Sophia? It seems not to make any sense as Sophia would not give out any further money to anyone in that block. Thank you very much again!

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