1.6: Cloning Repo and Push/Pull – Git and GitHub for Poets


– Hello I am continuing my tutorial series called Git and GitHub for poets and I’m very excited about
this particular section because what I’m going
to do in this session is crucial to your life as
a user of Git and GitHub. What I did before was show you
all of these concepts, right? Here’s my list of concepts,
you have a Git repository you can make commits
which are like changes, you can make branches,
you can merge branches, you can fork, you can do a pull request all these types of things that you can do with the Git software. You can do all those things
just using the GitHub website through its interface however
the truth of the matter is if you’re going to be working with this for open source projects
or even other kind of creative ideas of how you might want to work with Git you’re ultimately going to want to work on your own laptop. So in the previous video I
talked through the basics of just using this terminal
so if you don’t know how to use terminal go back
and watch the previous video but if you do you’re in the right place and you’re ready to actually download and install Git onto your local computer. Now I’m not going to do this in the video so if you’re watching this in real time pause go to this URL git-scm.com,
download, install Git. Once you’ve done that open up terminal and you’ll be ready to continue with me. So to make sure everything’s working what you want to do and I’m
going to, whoops (laughs) I just want to get into the right place so I’m in the trash? (laughs) Okay I want to be just in,
I want to be on my desktop. Okay, so I am now on my desktop
that’s where I want to be. Be somewhere, your documents
folder, your desktop, where you can start adding files. Desktop’s going to work
for me and the thing that I want to do is
just type the words Git. So if you see this you’re in good shape. Now my fonts kind of big so this looks kind of like a mess,
it’ll hopefully look nice and neat on your particular laptop. I’m going to hit clear if you see this, now well I misspelled Git to
make sure I got this error. If you see Git colon command not found then your Git is not
installed properly try again, ask a question in the comments here. Hopefully I can help you
figure out where you missed that or make another video
for one of the common problems but hopefully you’re
actually, Git is working and when you only type Git what you get is a lot of explanation
of well, you need to issue also a command, so everything about using Git locally
is all about saying Git something like you can imagine what this is, Git commit, make a commit, make a change, make it, save a change. So the first thing though,
like if I just type this, the first thing that’s
going to happen is saying, not a Git repository so this directory is not a Git repository. What is a Git repository? Remember this thing, this rainbow poem? This is a Git repository. So what you need to issue
Git commands is a folder on your computer which
is a Git repository. This is essentially a
folder on the GitHub server, you now want a folder on your computer. So I could just go and
grab this exact repository and bring it down to my computer and then work with it there
and I’m going to do that in either this video or the next one but I think it would be
useful just to show you what happens again when you start fresh. So there are two ways of starting fresh. One way is actually just saying Git init and I’m going to show that to you at the end of this
video or in the next one but I think an easier way for you to work when you’re getting started
is make your repository on GitHub and then download
it to your computer and I keep saying the word download but in a moment, soon I got
to start saying push and pull because ultimately pull it or clone it is actually a new term
so we’re going to get some new concepts here
and this idea of cloning. So cloning is the act
of taking a repository that’s on a server like
GitHub and cloning it to your computer,
downloading a kind of copy of it to your computer that you can work with and then you could push it back or you could pull from the server again if there are changes
that are on the server that aren’t in your computer,
we’ll get to that in a moment. Okay so here I am, so
let’s go back to GitHub and I’m going to to go over here and I’m going to say,
create a new repository and I’m going to call
this one Rainbow Song. This one will be a song and a song about rainbows, and one thing that I want to do that’s
kind of important here is I want to check this box here. Initialize this repository with a read me. The reason why I want to do
this is it’s going to make a lot easier to work with
if the repository on GitHub has a file associated with it already. And I’ll show you the difference when I show you get
init a little bit later. Okay so I’m going to select that and I’m going to hit create repository and now something really. So this is an empty
repository I did this before, it’s my rainbow song
but right here this is what’s really really important. There is a special URL
here, this is the URL for the repos file for
its, for its repository. This is the URL you need to
clone it to your computer. Now there are different
options, choose a clone URL. HTTPS recommended so this
is what you want to use if you don’t want to get fancy. There is, in other words, when
I’m going to do it this way and it’s going to ask me
for passwords every once in a while if I’m trying to save changes and that sort of thing,
there is a way to store your user and password name permanently to be able to, on your laptop
to be able to push and pull and work with GitHub that
requires this other SSH option which I will show you in a separate video because it’s kind of like
this convoluted thing. So for now I just want to use this HTTPS and I want to hit copy
and I want to go here, back to terminal and we’re going to do our first local terminal Git command. Here it comes everybody. I need my drum roll sound effect. Git clone, by the way
pasting works in terminal so I’m going to hit
command V and you can see there it is and you
can see that’s the URL, GitHub.com/RainbowCoder/Rainbow-Song.Git. Incidentally this is
exactly this same exact URL just with .Git at the end because .Git is actually
kind of like this sync, saying I want the URL
of the repository itself not the sort of web
interface to the repository. And so once I’d hit
that and I wish my font, I wish it fit all in one line. Let’s see if I, there we
go that’s a little nicer. Once I hit enter you can
see it’s cloning out. For a large, if this was a
repository with a lot of files this would take quite a while
as it’s downloading everything but you can see it counted
objects three, total three. Reuse blah blah blah blah 100% done. Checking connectivity, done. So it’s giving you some debug information about what’s going on and now I can say open dot and I’m on to the desktop and we can see look, there’s a repository called Rainbow Song. Now there’s nothing in
it but that read me file because that was the only thing that was in the repository
in the repository on GitHub. So let’s say I want to actually
make some changes to it now. So what I’m going to do is I’m
going to drag this down here and I’m going to open it with,
I’m just going to open it with Sublime Text I was using, whoops. So any text editor will do. You can use Atom, actually
there’s some nice things about using Atom with Git, I mean I’ll use that in a different video and
I can just go to this file. You can see there’s the that read me file. Now this read me file is written
in a format called markdown and this markdown is just
a markup language to like, and the pound sign means a
header that sort of thing. So I just do a testing,
a song about rainbows in the key of C major. So I’m going to make
that change I hit save and now I’m going to show you another Git command so we’re making a list of them, clone is one, here’s another one that’s very useful, Git status, okay? So I’m coming back over here
and I’m going to show you Git status, Git status,
ah not a Git repository, why is it not a Git repository? I cloned it, the directory is there but I’m not in that directory
so I need to CD into that directory and I can
make sure I’ve been there by saying I’m in desktop rainbow song and now I should be able hit Git status. Look at this, it’s telling
me lots of information. I’m on the branch
master, remember branches I’m up to date with origin
but I’ve modified this file so if I’ve modified this
file now, even though, so this is what’s different, when you were on GitHub
and you edited a file and hit save you actually
made, you changed the file and committed it to the
repository at the same time. Right now this file is just
floating there, is it changed? I could get rid of the change,
I could just, I could keep it whatever but what I want
to do is actually say that change I made I
really want to commit it. So what I’m going to do
is say, is Git commit. That’s another command in this list. Now, oh commit is already
up here so that’s not a new command but we want to issue now this command commit and I want to issue that command locally. Now, commands need arguments. The first way I’m going to
show you how to do this is with the argument dash a. The argument dash a
essentially stands for all. Just like anything that was changed, anywhere, commit all of it. In probably in a separate
video I’m going to show you about how you can only
commit certain changes and not other changes and
there’s an add command which is like a step before commit but this is a good way of
getting started Git commit dash a and I’m going to now, oh and
then if I want to add a comment I’m going to dash M for a message, dash M for message I’m going to
say, adding the key of C and in quotes so this is now, Git commish, commit. Git commish? Git commit dash a, commit any
changes I made to any files dash M, with this message,
adding the key of C. So I’m going to hit enter and you can see, ah now here’s the thing, oh boy. So this is that it’s
going to happen to you once and only once in your life unless you change your name or email that sort of thing so it
might happen to you again. What it’s telling me is,
it’s saying I don’t know who you are (laughs). Like I need an author to be associated with this particular Git change. Now, if I were on GitHub in the browser and I made a change it knows who I am because I’m logged in, right? I’m logged in as the user RainbowCoder so it doesn’t have to ask me who I am but on my computer it
doesn’t know who I am. So what I need to do is tell my computer who I am who I’m going to be when I make Git changes. Now if you want to have multiple Git users that can get very like
messy and complicated there’s probably way of doing that. Maybe I’ll make a video about that someday but for now I’m just going to do this, I’m going to actually
just copy this command, Git config dash dat so to
set my username RainbowCoder, that’s my username, then
I’m going to copy this one and set my email, now
this is very important. I don’t know if it matters
whether your username exactly matches GitHub, you
probably should have it match. Your email needs to
exactly match the email you signed up for GitHub
with and I actually signed up with [email protected] So I’m going to enter that in. So that should be done and by the way, I’m going to hit clear
again, if I want to check to make sure that worked, another command is a Git config list I think. Nope, Git config dash
dash list, there we go. So you can see this is listing
all of the configuration settings for Git on this local computer and you can see my username
and user email is now set. So I should and if I
type Git status, whoops I want to go back and hit Git status, so uh, it actually, so we
managed to make that commit. It did actually do that
commit but it just, it’s uh, it’s it used like
some anonymous username or the username that’s on my
laptop so that’s not good. So one thing it doesn’t really matter. You know I’m going to,
I’m going to let that be. There’s a way, there’s an amend command which I could amend my previous commands, commits to be now with
my particular username that I am now but what I’m going to do is just make another change
and I’m going to say in the key of C major
the song is a happy song and I’m going to do Git status. I made a change, I’m
going to do Git commit. I want to go back a vine, oops, I want to find that command again Git commit, there it is
and adding a happy song. So now I’m going to show you another command that you can use, log. So the command log
allows you to see locally the history of your Git commits. To be honest it’s much
more convenient to look at this stuff on GitHub because you have a nice visual interface for doing that but every once in a while
you might want to see that and what I’m actually going to do is type Git log dash two which should show me only the last two commits. Although there only have been two commits so you can see here it
is and now you can see the difference, you can see this author is Coding Rainbow
[email protected] whereas the author of the
first commit is processing. It made some default user
based on my computer’s law. So you want to, what you want
to do is set your username and email before you do that first commit. Okay, oh oh something very
important that I didn’t show you. You can get into this place,
this very dangerous place by accident called Vim. Vim, I’m using Sublime as a text editor, Atom is another nice text editor that you can use,
TextEdit is a text editor. Vim is a terminal based
command line based text editor and when you type in things like Git log you’re actually in this place
that you can never get out of. I am in Vim because somehow
I’m in this weird text editor thing where it wants me to do
stuff that I don’t want to do so I can always type colon, shift colon and then type Q to get out of it. So often when Git, if you
end up in that text editor you could just, you want to type colon and Q and it will get you out of it. Now you may be, you’re a kind
of person who wants to use Vim and Vim is I’m sure is a
wonderful place for many people but it is also a place of
heartache and despair and danger. So, colon Q, colon Q that’s
the new song for today if you get stuck in Vim land. Now I’m going to type Git
status and here we are. Now I’m reaching the end of
this particular tutorial video because I’ve been going on and on and on. What is it that I, what
is it that it’s missing? Now here, my read me file, here in this particular repository has changes that are not reflected on GitHub itself and you can see that right here, that we’re seeing the old
read me file here on GitHub. So now I want to talk to you about the concepts of push and pull. I mentioned these concepts when I talked about pull requests so I’m
adding to here push and pull. So let’s review this, this is GitHub, this is you working
locally in your terminal. Pushing is the act of sending to GitHub, pulling is the act of
receiving from GitHub. So what I’ve done is I’ve
worked on my repository here locally and the
changes that I’ve made here no longer exist, are
not reflected on GitHub so I want to push to GitHub. When would you want to pull from GitHub? Well maybe somebody else is also working on your repository and they
push some changes to GitHub and you don’t have those
changes on your laptop then you would want to
pull, so GitHub being the sort of central
place for multiple people to contribute to and you could always push your changes there and
pull other people’s changes back down to yours, so
let’s just look at push. Back over here, now here I
am again I’m going to say, Git push, huh? It doesn’t know what to do. Now I’ve discovered there’s
another really key aspect of this, there is another
command to add to our list called remote, this is
me working on my laptop on my Git repository,
GitHub is now an example of a remote, a remote
is a duplicate instance of your repository that
lives somewhere else on a remote server, you
can have multiple remotes for a particular project,
in most of the cases into my tutorial videos I’m
just going to have one remote, GitHub as that particular remote. So what I need to do is say
where, when I say Git push I need to say Git push where? So you might think that
what I would say is Git push GitHub because
what I want to do is Git pushed to my remote GitHub. Now, it doesn’t know what that is. So, it doesn’t, it gave me
a bunch of error messages. So I’m going to type
something, Git remote. Ah, this lists me all
the remotes associated with my project one of
which is called origin. I can actually also say Git remote dash V the V’s meaning verbose and
it’s showing me more origin is actually this particular URL. So now, I don’t want to, I
want to say Git push origin so origin is the name of the remote, it’s just whatever
default name that GitHub and Git used when you
clone your repo originally, it just calls it origin,
it’s the where word, where it came from, it’s the
origin of this particular repo so Git push origin
should be enough, right? Nope gave me some more
actually, it didn’t give me those error, gave me a
lot of a lot of error, a lot of junk, I think it tried to do it with sub default but
I’m missing one piece. I need to say the remote which is origin and then I need one more argument which is the branch. See how much more work
this is to work locally through terminal, it
just, all I did, to do it was commit button on GitHub and I was done but I want to push origin branch master. So I’m just working in the
master branch right now, we’re going to do fancier
stuff with branching and all that sort of thing later. Git push origin master. Git push origin master. Denied to Shiffman, oh
you, I’m not Shiffman, I’m RainbowCoder, timeout
pause this video tutorial. I’m back and ready to push to GitHub. The reason why I had a
problem is I’ve logged into my computer previously
as a different username and it still thought I was that. So I fixed it now and I’m ready to say Git push origin master here we go, Git push origin master, now this is what you should see. Of course it’s not going
to just let me do this because it doesn’t know who I am, you need to, if whether
I have access rights to that particular repository on GitHub. Now in fact I do and I
should be able to enter in my GitHub username right here and then I should be able to
enter in my GitHub password so hopefully I remember right here and hit enter and it
happened, there we go. Now you can see it gave me information about the stuff being sent to GitHub and I can go here and I can hit refresh and you can now see the new text is here and if I go under
commits you can see here. Now, the good news is remembering
this particular commit has an incorrect user name,
I didn’t go back and fix it because I don’t really care, big deal but you can see that
this particular commit is assigned to the correct user because my Git settings on my laptop are the same username as
my username on GitHub, username and email, okay. So this video turned out
to be a little bit less than I originally intended but let me just recap for a second and talk about what I’m going to do in the next one. So, all we did in this video was create a totally new repository on
GitHub, cloned it to our laptop made some changes to it and pushed it back and while doing that we
realize we have to install Git on the laptop, we have to
know about Unix commands and I have to also make
sure that my global username and email settings are configured. Once you’ve done that
you’re kind of good to go for a much longer period of time and in, because you don’t
have to do all that again. Just say that I always
spent like a half an hour trying to get my username
correct if you’re watching this that’s why I’ve gotten lost my train of thought here, in the next
video I’m going to show you how to make a fresh repository
from an existing folder on your computer and send that to GitHub because a lot of cases
you might actually have already made something on your computer that you want suddenly
turn into a repository on GitHub so I’ll show you that not using the Git init command
in the next particular video and from there I’m going to keep going with more and more types of things that you might want to do with working with other people’s
repositories and branching and merging and all sorts
of other possible things that you might need to do at some point. Okay, see you in the next video maybe, if you choose to continue to watch.

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